- In November 1998, by a vote of 63% - 37%, Californians overwhelmingly supported Proposition 5, a statute initiative that would have enacted tribal-state compacts. Though supported by the voters, the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees brought a suit against the validity of Prop. 5. Most of the measure was ultimately struck down by the California Supreme Court, thereby jeopardizing Indian gaming tribal self-sufficiency.
- On March 7, 2000, by a vote of 65% - 35% margin, Californians overwhelmingly supported Proposition 1A, a constitutional amendment that authorized federally recognized Indian tribes to operate slot machines, lottery games, and banking and percentage card games on Indian lands in California, in accordance with federal law.
- In November 2004, by a vote of 84% - 16%, Californians overwhelmingly rejected Proposition 68, a ballot measure that would have authorized slot machines in 16 California card rooms and racetracks.
In February 2008, by a vote of 56% - 44%, Californians upheld four amended tribal-state compacts with the Agua Caliente, Morongo, Pechanga, and Sycuan tribes after an attempt to overturn them by the Hotel Employees Restaurant Employees through the referendum process.